Thursday, September 3, 2020

Becoming an Alpha Male

Does this sound like you? It is safe to say that you are the person that ladies simply need to be companions with? Do you have loads of ladies buddies however not sweethearts? Do ladies attempt to push you around, control you or settle on all the choices in your relationship? Do you wish you had the certainty and legitimate nearness to be accountable for social and business situations?Do your own frailties shield you from accomplishing your own latent capacity? Do you wish your sexual coexistence was progressively imaginative, intriguing and satisfying? This is the predicament of what nature calls the beta male †the lesser man.The beta male therapists away from plain sight and infrequently applies any kind of control. He permits himself to be the fallback fellow for ladies, to be constrained by them, and consigned uniquely to abiogenetic buddies. He gets next to no sex, and what he gets is uncreative and exhausting. He can't champion himself with ladies or men and has next to no opportunity of accomplishing his fantasy throughout everyday life and love. Beta guys make every effort to attempt to satisfy a lady, yet regardless of how enthusiastically they attempt, ladies simply drive them away and push them around.Beta guys are exploited by their companions and by their female friends. Beta guys are the â€Å"nice guys† who become involved with the snare of misleading games that ladies play and wind up missing out in all manners conceivable while their companions, the alpha guys, get all the hot ladies and all the sex they can deal with. Sooner or later, these beta guys drop out of the real world and become even less alluring to ladies. Shake off the beta male picture now! Figure out how to be the alpha male! Be the main person to get this hot new guide on the best way to order consideration from ladies by learning the methods of the alpha male!The alpha male consistently gets the primary pick of lady due to the abilities that you will learn in this e nergizing new guide. Be the ace of sexual encounters and social open doors beyond anything you could ever imagine. The alpha male gets what he needs, and that person can be and will be you! You can and will be an alpha male. Disregard what you have ever thought about identifying with ladies as a beta male. This enlightening and inventive new book, Becoming an Alpha Male, will retrain you in how to be predominant, forceful and totally powerful to ladies. That beta male disposition will be gone forever!Beta guys are habitually the subject of maltreatment by hot ladies. How frequently have you lived like royalty a lady, just to return her to your place to discover that she doesn’t need to have a personal connection with you since she considers you to be only a â€Å"friend†. Furthermore, how often does appear as though that the harder you attempted to satisfy a lady, the more she views you as a simply that †a decent companion and wouldn't like to take the relationshi p with you further. These circumstances happen in light of the fact that hot ladies have taken in the advantages of going after what they accept to be men’s intentions †craving them for sex or dating!.In numerous circumstances, beta guys consistently surrender capacity to the hot ladies who at that point become exhausted with being viewed as unrivaled by these very folks. She is really searching for the person who will be a test to her. This person will regard her as only an equivalent or less and be sure of his capacity to draw in her without depending on giving costly endowments, performing favors, or unreasonably bringing himself down to win her endorsement. This is the conduct that she finds appealing. The person who can do this radiates an inward conviction that he thinks he can draw in ladies, and ladies are pulled in to this calm self-confidence.Consequently, alphas are powerful to ladies. The betas who do all that they can to prevail upon a woman’s endorse ment are undermining their own endeavors, and the more they attempt, the more ladies are killed by them. †How can one shed off the beta male picture to move into the alpha male zone, or †How can one develop and show all the characteristics of an alpha male that will discreetly draw in ladies, without wanting to and past their own mindfulness? These will be among the significant difficulties tended to in this book, which you will learn in the wake of going over the tips in detail.This article offers just a skeletal review of the strategies and procedures included. Get a total and FREE COPY of the book now for an intensive clarification on the tips. Likewise, it is no fantasy that hot ladies are much of the time given their capacity by beta guys, who are happy to acknowledge bargains and even self-maltreatment so as to get these ladies. This conduct makes hot ladies uncommonly pompous and prepared to stroll over you on the off chance that you are believed to be the following person that is pursuing her. Therefore betas find getting these ladies to date them to be almost impossible.If you don't wish to make due with less, be that as it may, this book is for you. It will show you how to restore the playing field, how to turn into the prevailing party in the relationship, how to get hot ladies to give up those forces that they have been given by the betas, and get them to intuitively give up to you. Tips to empower you to abstain from playing into a hot woman’s games, to abstain from being mishandled by her like the betas who unintentionally turned into her casualties, will be canvassed inside and out in the book, as will the tips on the best way to bring down a hot woman’s regard and self image, or arrogance.All these will divert you from being a predator to the objective and make you considerably more unique and harder-to-get than other men, and you can abandon being the tracker to the pursued. While betas long to lay down with a hot lady, yet neglect to stand out enough to be noticed, you would have the option to lay down with numerous as you wish and cause hot ladies to acknowledge bargains so as to be with you, in the event that you figure out how to build up the Alpha Male mix of internal identity certainty and manly strength that pulls in ladies. As such, you can even have hot ladies endure misuses and abuses from you, and they will in any case long to lay down with you.Therefore, this book shows you the tips on the most proficient method to move rapidly through progress stage from being a beta into a hot, sure, yet in addition predominant alpha male that pulls in hot ladies and makes them seek after you. Keeping up their edge of intensity, alpha guys pull in hot ladies to them, however don't need to acknowledge any trade offs themselves and can even have their own picks and determinations of any hot ladies they wish. Hot ladies just can't meddle and hinder their choices! Have you at any point perceived how effe ctively twitches dispose of their decisions of excellent angels and get themselves new ones nearly effortlessly?Jerks are one outrageous case of guys who draw in with strength and self-assurance. In any case, alpha guys can accomplish a similar thing without being as injurious as bastards. The similitude, in any case, is that by being an alpha male, you will get ladies, particularly hot ladies, with progress, and not get hurled over by pompous cuties! Those days will be history truly soon. And all these and more will be hastened into real factors, yet just on the off chance that you figure out how to change yourself from being a beta male today into a prevailing, alpha male, which is the planned reason for this digital book.

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

The Silver Linings Playbook Chapter 25

The Asian Invasion After a moderately short exercise and a significantly shorter †and quiet †run with Tiffany, I bounce a train to Philadelphia. Following Jake's bearings, I stroll down Market Street toward the waterway, take a right hand turn on Second Street, and follow the way to his structure. At the point when I arrive at the location, I am astonished to find that Jake lives in a skyscraper that ignores the Delaware River. I need to give my name to the custodian and reveal to him who I am visiting before he will give me access the structure. He's only an elderly person in an interesting ensemble, who says â€Å"Go Eagles† when he sees my Baskett shirt, however my sibling having a custodian is kind of amazing, paying little mind to the man's uniform. Another elderly person wears an alternate kind of entertaining ensemble in the lift †he even has on one of those brimless monkey caps †and this man takes me to the tenth floor after I reveal to him my sibling's name. The lift entryways open, and I stroll down a blue foyer on a thick honorary pathway. At the point when I discover number 1021, I thump multiple times. â€Å"What's up, Baskett?† my sibling says after he opens the entryway. He's in his Jerome Brown commemoration shirt since it's down day once more. â€Å"Come on in.† There is a gigantic narrows window in the lounge, and I can see the Ben Franklin Bridge, the Camden Aquarium, and small pontoons drifting on the Delaware. It's a lovely view. I promptly notice that my sibling has a level screen TV sufficiently flimsy to hold tight the divider like an image †and it is much greater than Dad's TV. In any case, most odd of all, my sibling has an infant excellent piano in his lounge room. â€Å"What's this?† I inquire. â€Å"Check it out,† Jake says. He plunks down on the piano seat, lifts the spread off the keys, and afterward really begins playing. I am astonished that he can play â€Å"Fly, Eagles, Fly.† His variant isn't extravagant, only a basic harmony movement, however it's unquestionably the Eagles' battle melody. At the point when he starts to sing, I chime in with him. At the point when he completes, we do the serenade and afterward Jake discloses to me he has been taking exercises for as long as three years. He even plays me another melody, which is not at all like â€Å"Fly, Eagles, Fly.† This next tune is natural †shockingly delicate, similar to a little cat strolling through high grass †and it appears to be so not at all like Jake to make something this wonderful. I really feel my eyes saturating as my sibling plays with his eyes shut, moving his middle to and fro with the influence of the piece, which additionally looks entertaining on the grounds that he is wearing an Eagles pullover. He commits several errors, however I don't give it a second thought, since he is making a decent attempt to play the piece effectively for me and that is what matters, correct? At the point when he completes, I applaud boisterously and afterward ask him what he was playing. â€Å"Pathetique. Piano Sonata number 8. Beethoven. That was a piece of the subsequent development. Adagio cantabile,† Jake says. â€Å"Did you like it?† â€Å"Very much.† Truthfully, I am stunned. â€Å"When did you figure out how to play?† â€Å"When Caitlin moved in with me, she brought her piano, and she's kind of been showing me all music ever since.† I begin to feel woozy on the grounds that I have never heard notice of this Caitlin, and I think my sibling just revealed to me she lives here with him, which would mean my sibling is in a genuine relationship I think nothing about. This doesn't appear to be correct. Siblings should think about one another's sweethearts. At long last I figure out how to state, â€Å"Caitlin?† My sibling brings me into his room, and there's a major wooden banner bed with two coordinating armoires that appear as though monitors confronting one another. He gets a surrounded high contrast photograph from the bed stand and hands it to me. In the photograph, Jake's cheek is crushed against an excellent woman's. She has short light hair, trim practically like a man's, and she is sensitive looking, yet lovely. She is in a white dress; Jake is in a tuxedo. â€Å"That's Caitlin,† Jake says. â€Å"She plays with the Philadelphia Orchestra once in a while and does a great deal of recording in New York City as well. She's a traditional pianist.† â€Å"Why have I not found out about Caitlin before?† Jake takes the representation from my hands and stands it up on the dresser. We stroll once again into the family room and plunk down on his calfskin lounge chair. â€Å"I realized you were vexed about Nikki, so I would not like to disclose to you that I was †¦ well †¦ cheerfully married.† Hitched? The word hits me like a goliath wave, and out of nowhere I am smooth with sweat. â€Å"Mom really attempted to get you out of that place in Baltimore for the Mass, yet it was the point at which you were first conceded and they wouldn't allow you to out. Mother didn't need me to inform you regarding Caitlin yet, so I didn't from the start, however you're my sibling, and since you're home, I needed you to think about my life, and Caitlin's the best part. I've disclosed to her everything about you and †in the event that you need †you can meet her today. I had her go out at the beginning of today while I broke the news to you. I can call her now, and we can eat before we go down to the Linc. In this way, would you like to meet my wife?† The before I know it, I'm at a little chic bistro off South Street, sitting opposite a wonderful lady who holds my sibling's hand under the table and grins at me continuously. Jake and Caitlin convey the discussion, and it feels a ton like when I am with Veronica and Ronnie. Jake responds to the vast majority of the inquiries Caitlin pose to me, since I don't state much by any means. No notice is made of Nikki or my time at the terrible spot or exactly how peculiar it is that Caitlin has been hitched to my sibling for quite a long time, yet I had never met her. At the point when the server comes, I state I'm not ravenous, in light of the fact that I have relatively little cash on me †just the ten bucks my mom gave me for the tram, since I previously burned through five bucks on the PATCO ticket. In any case, my sibling orders for us all and says he is rewarding, which is pleasant of him. We eat extravagant ham sandwiches with a type of sun-dried tomato glue, and when I finish, I inquire as to whether the service was a decent one. â€Å"What ceremony?† she says, and I discover her taking a gander at the little white scar over my correct eyebrow. â€Å"Your wedding ceremony.† â€Å"Oh,† she says, and afterward takes a gander at my sibling. â€Å"Yes. It was extremely pleasant. We had the Mass at St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City and afterward a little gathering at the New York Palace.† â€Å"How long have you been married?† My sibling shoots his better half a look that I don't miss. â€Å"A while now,† she says, which causes me to feel insane in light of the fact that everybody present realizes that I don't recollect the most recent few years †and on the grounds that she is a lady, Caitlin realizes precisely to what extent she has been hitched to Jake. It is evident she is attempting to ensure me by being ambiguous. This causes me to feel terrible, despite the fact that I understand Caitlin is attempting to be benevolent. My sibling takes care of the tab, and we walk Caitlin back to their high rise. Jake kisses his significant other by the passage entryway, and his affection for her is so self-evident. Be that as it may, at that point Caitlin kisses me directly on the cheek, and with her face just a couple of creeps from mine, she says, â€Å"I'm happy I at last got the chance to meet you, Pat. I trust we'll turn out to be acceptable friends.† I gesture since I don't have the foggiest idea what else to state, and afterward Caitlin says, â€Å"Go Baker!† â€Å"It's Baskett, dummy,† Jake says, and Caitlin becomes flushed before they kiss once more. Jake flags down a taxi and tells the driver, â€Å"City Hall.† In the taxi I tell my sibling I don't have any cash to pay for the taxi ride, yet he says I never need to pay for anything when I am with him, which is a pleasant comment, however his maxim it causes me to feel kind of peculiar. Underneath City Hall, we purchase tram tokens, turn an entryway, and afterward sit tight for the southbound Orange Line. Despite the fact that it is just 1:30 p.m. furthermore, opening shot isn't for seven hours yet, despite the fact that it is a Monday, a day when the vast majority need to work, numerous men in Eagles shirts are now looking out for the stage. This causes me to understand that Jake isn't working today †it causes me to acknowledge I don't have the foggiest idea what Jake accomplishes professionally, which truly begins to crack me out. I consider every option and recall that my sibling was a business major in school, yet I can't recollect where he works, so I ask him. â€Å"I'm an alternatives trader,† he says. â€Å"What's that?† â€Å"I play the stock market.† â€Å"Oh,† I state. â€Å"So who accomplish you work for?† â€Å"Myself.† â€Å"What do you mean?† â€Å"I work for myself and do all my business on the web. I'm self-employed.† â€Å"Which is the reason you could take off right on time to spend time with me.† â€Å"That's simply the best part about being employed.† I am exceptionally dazzled with Jake's capacity to help himself and his significant other by playing the securities exchange, however he wouldn't like to discuss his work. He believes I'm not savvy enough to comprehend what he does; Jake doesn't attempt to disclose his work to me. â€Å"So what's your opinion of Caitlin?† he asks me. In any case, the train comes, and we join the group of boarding Eagles fans before I can reply. â€Å"What did you consider Caitlin?† he asks again after we discover seats and the train begins moving. â€Å"She's great,† I state, maintaining a strategic distance from eye to eye connection with my sibling. â€Å"You're distraught at me for not informing you regarding Caitlin right away.† â€Å"No, I'm not.† I need to disclose to him about Tiffany tailing me when I run; finding the â€Å"Pat† box; how Mom is still protesting and messy dishes are in the sink and Dad turned his white shirts pink when he did the wash; how my specialist Cliff says I have to remain nonpartisan and not engage in my folks' conjugal issues however just spotlight on improving my own psychological well-being †yet how might I do that when Dad and Mom are snoozing separate rooms and Dad is alwa

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Basic of Chromatography-Click to get Free Sample Solution

Question: What is Metabolomics. What is LC/MS and GC/MS likewise investigation GC/MS and LC/MS for breaking down steroids. Additionally Tell a few Advantages of GC/MS in steroid profiling in pediatrics. Answer: Presentation: Metabolomics is the investigation of metabolites and since there is gigantic assortment of metabolites present consequently a thorough research of metabolites today requires both LC/MS (Liquid chromatographymass spectrometry) and GC/MS (Gas chromatographymass spectrometry). Anyway not all the metabolomic concentrates by and by are complete, the variables, for example, concoction attributes of the metabolites, the expense and the example lattice lead to settle on a decision between LC/MS and GC/MS (Lu, 2008). The current paper endeavors to make a basic examination between the two procedures in the discovery of steroids. The paper will audit a portion of the attributes of LC/MS and GC/MS and present factors that must be considered for picking one of the procedures. LC/MS is type of HPLC framework having a mass spec finder connected to it. The synthetic compounds are being isolated by the HPLC by the section chromatography and this procedure is opposite stage chromatography. Within the sight of hydrophilic dissolvable, (for example, water) the metabolite ties to the section because of hydrophobic collaborations and afterward eluted by the hydrophobic dissolvable for instance methanol. As the metabolites elute out from one finish of the section they at that point enters the mass indicator from where metabolites the dissolvable is evacuated and are ionized. The mass spectrometers can separate number of synthetic substances combined based on their masses. Thus it isn't important to try to isolate synthetic substances with HPLC first (Lu, 2008). GC/MS is a strategy comprising of gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer. A mind boggling blend of synthetic compounds are isolated, distinguished and evaluated. With these qualities the GC/MS is a perfect skill for dissecting number of low atomic weight exacerbates that are available in condition. The aggravate that will be dissected utilizing GC/MS must be unstable and thermally steady. Aside from this the functionalised mixes may require a few alterations, for example, derivatization before dissecting it by GC/MS. This is done to keep away from any undesirable adsorption impacts that would somehow or another outcome into mediocre information quality. The examples before exposed to GC/MS examination must be first disintegrated in natural dissolvable and afterward the dissolvable must be separated and the concentrate is oppressed for different investigations. The example when infused into the GC is disintegrated and moves into the chromatographic segment with the assistance of bearer gas. As the example moves through the section the mixes of enthusiasm from the blend gets isolated as for the collaboration of the metabolite with the covering of the segment just as the transporter gas (Hbschmann, 2008). Near examination of GC/MS and LC/MS for dissecting steroids The steroid profiling has consistently been most significant piece of finding identified with steroid hormone issue and digestion. Different procedures have been utilized from decades, for example, slender layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aside from this numerous different immunoassays have been utilized widely for plasma steroid hormones measurement in like manner analytic procedures. These procedures have been vital to the clinical issue conclusion yet the information are not completely solid as the issue of cross reactivity has never been understood totally for some analytes hence impacting the particularity. At the point when the grouping of the hormones to be measured is less, for example, on account of pediatric patients or on account of postmenopausal ladies issue happens. Further there is changeability present in the interassay of normal estimations, for example, estradiol, testosterone and the progesterone. These fluctuations have been diminishe d essentially by utilizing fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These days the immunoassays are once in a while utilized as the most recent age of LC/MS and GC/MS have been end up being better than such tests. Numerous demonstrative research facilities have received LC/MS because of its boss immunoassays, its particularity and its giving great linearity even at extremely low fixations. Despite the fact that LC/MS is steroid investigation has developed as a standard demonstrative innovation yet it has numerous confinements with one significant disadvantage that the analyte estimations are constantly focused on despite the fact that the boards of the steroids are being estimated in a solitary run (Krone, 2010). An option investigative method to LC/MS accessible is known as GC/MS which is accessible for over 40 years. The GC/MS is utilized for the investigation of metabolites of steroid hormones just as their forerunners. This strategy can be sued both in focused and complete mode. A checked GC/MS run comprise of all the discharged steroids and the information can be searched for any required analyte significantly after extensive stretch of examination (Vogeser, 2007).The bit of leeway of LC/MS is the quick and required investigation of a little measure of mixes at high affectability and is effortlessly computerized. Derivatization and hydrolysis of any conjugates isn't required. Thus this makes the LC/MS an alluring and perfect symptomatic method. Anyway auxiliary portrayal of some novel steroids can't be done with this strategy and the filtering will result into not well characterized metabolites and the information acquired is hard to decipher. Here the GC/MS has the bit of leeway over th e LC/MS of giving better goals. As of late the goals of the LC section has improved significantly with the utilization of little molecule size yet at the same time the information is undermined because of the short run time. In GC/MS derivatization of the steroids is required with the utilization of methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether. This is the inconvenience with this strategy as this devours time and need additional work. Anyway this permits the portrayal of the structures through nearly simpler assurance of the quantity of C=O and C-OH gatherings. The MS discontinuity happens because of derivatization consequently colossal data is accessible on the beginning of the specific particles that are created from the examination of GC/MS. This outcomes into simpler assurance of the practical gatherings and their situation on the steroid particle. The GC/MS examination have been end up being unrivaled in isolating the epimeric steroids consequently it is valuable explicitly in the digestion issue, for example, 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 inadequacy and others. At the point when GC/MS is at check mode non focused on steroid profiling and distinguishing proof of novel mixes should be possible alongside recognizable proof of their combination and digestion pathways and this information can be put away for longer timeframe to be utilized in future (Bowden, 2009).When modest quantity of required analyte is to be estimated with high foundation GC/MS is significant for this LC/MS as extremely limited quantity of test ka be investigated effectively (Rauh, 2009). Points of interest of GC/MS in steroid profiling in pediatrics With the presentation of LC/MS the measure of the example required for the examination of steroid hormone has been significantly diminished in contrast with different immunoassays and the steroid profiling has additionally been built up effectively as the symptomatic test strategy for the separation between the deformities in the steroid issue. This procedure has been built up as the affirmation tests in the screening of neonatal inherent adrenal hyperplasia depending just upon blood tests. Consequently it must be remembered that this procedure depends just upon the blood tests which in a pediatric settings may not be anything but difficult to get as it is damaging both for the patient and their folks. Also the blood inspecting just reflects single time point than the coordinated image of the steroid metabolome for a more drawn out timeframe which is conceivable in GS/MS steroid examination procedure. Another particular bit of leeway that GC/MS has over LC/MS is that it is non-specif ic in nature that is a sweep will run for all the discharged steroids which will give an oerall image of single metabolome. One of the significant downsides of utilizing GC/MS procedure in the clinical steroid examination is the introducing information in the straightforward structure which can be deciphered by the endocrinologists. The endocrinologists think that its hard to break down the complexities of the steroid digestion. A more easy to use introduction of GC/MS information must be set up which can make the complex metabolomes simpler to decipher and reasonable by the clinicians and the researchers. End: With the coming in the innovations of LC/MS the most traditional steroid logical system can be supplanted by estimating the hormones and the forerunners explicitly for the known analytes. With LC/MS suitable qualities are gotten for the most part just because explicitly in pediatric and females where low groupings of androgens and estrogens are available and the work is significant and requires reproducibility (Rauh, 2009). Anyway regardless of this the GC/MS despite everything assumes a significant job in the examination of the uncommon and unidentified conditions and can hold its place as the prominent disclosure in characterizing new and obscure pathways of digestion of the obscure steroids. Among the two the GC/MS has all the earmarks of being the best strategy for the investigation of digestion and is a decent choice in the pediatric condition when a limited quantity of blood inspecting is wanted. This strategy despite everything remains the center of the pre-birth conclusion of steroid issue by breaking down the maternal pee or the amniotic liquid. Anyway from investigating both the method it very well may be inferred that both the strategy in steroid examination if correlative more than contending. References: Bowden, J. A., Colosi, D. M., Mora-Montero, D. C., Garrett, T. J., Yost, R. A. (2009). Improvement of compound derivatization of steroids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Journal of Chromatography B,877(27), 3237-3242. Hbschmann, H.

Long story or memoir Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Long story or diary - Essay Example At the point when she was twelve years of age, Chun along with her family moved to Australia. In contrast to her more established sisters, Chun didn't care for the new condition, and the bizarreness of the traditions and language made her life considerably increasingly hopeless. Having experienced childhood in China, life was entirely unexpected in Australia as far as ways of life, customs, language, and political structure. Similarly as Chun was acclimating to the new condition, at age 17, she found a little knot in her bosom, and before long, started the battle with malignant growth. Without a doubt, this was a very damaging second for the whole family the greatest number of could hardly imagine how one of them would battle with the savage malignant growth. Not long after five months since the irregularity began, her mom passed on at age 37. Both Chun’s family and the general public idea Chun mum’s passing was credited by sadness over her little girl's problem, and su bsequently, Chun started a long battle with low confidence and a profound feeling of misery and blame. Chun accepted that she was the reason for her mother’s demise and thus, thought she was a reject to her whole family. Be that as it may, after the posthumous it was understood that her mum experienced both hypertension and diabetes. The news over her daughter’s malignant growth expanded her circulatory strain, and accordingly, caused her passing. During that loss season, Chun’s family couldn't comprehend why God needed to take their mom who happened to be the wellspring of consolation to the whole family. In particular, Chun couldn't comprehend the need or significance of living as she suspected her circumstance was the reason for her mother’s demise. Regardless of the numerous difficulties that the family confronted, they were special to have medical caretakers and specialists who gave love and sympathy to them. Chun’s treatment required the long and incessant medical clinic stays, and subsequently she missed the vast majority of her school classes. Frequently, Chun believed that she had welcomed the malady on herself and she wanted that she had an alternate ailment that included less torment and less clinic remains. Her clinical treatment was serious to the point that it included such disrupting and agonizing methods as chemotherapy and medical procedure. The treatment was all the more startling and frightening for a youngster than it could be for a grown-up. During that time of dejection and dread of lengthier treatment, Chun built up a solid and confiding in close to home relationship with her parental figures and medical caretakers. The specialists strolled with her and impelled a solid tribute that she might one be able to day recuperate from the infection. Such supportive gestures made a solid stage for Chun to develop her understanding that she can show signs of improvement and recoup from malignancy if just she acce pts. Notwithstanding numerous supportive gestures, Chun experienced numerous troubles and agony. In any case, she continued accepting that one day she would recuperate and be a motivation to many experiencing the illness. While in the emergency clinic, Chun chose to archive a book by the subject â€Å"It Gets better on the off chance that you believe† Her principle reason for existing was to arrive at malignancy patients on the most proficient method to adapt to the sickness and remind specialists and medical attendants on the advantages of value care to patients. Chun expected to make a strong stage for perusers to comprehend her genuine experience and how she struggled with disease. Obviously, Chun accepting each day as a chance to learn and fathom things that one day would be a motivation to other people. She changed her outlook and grasped a positive

Friday, August 21, 2020

What is the Vatican II Free Essays

Vatican II is the last ecumenical committee that the Roman Catholic Church had. It is the main gathering that the Church composed for as long as century up to now. Ecumenical boards are held each time the Church feels there are things to be settled inside its establishment. We will compose a custom article test on What is the Vatican II? or then again any comparative theme just for you Request Now It is gone to by Bishops around the globe. Not to be delude by its name, Vatican II isn't a continuation of Vatican I; rather, it is another board committed to settling new issues. Since this committee is held practically 50 years prior, perhaps it is about time for the Church to at long last hold another, not really to settle new issues, however just to check the general status of the Christian world, particularly with the coming of foundational microorganism investigate and the proceeding with issues of anti-conception medication. Also, things today are certainly not quite the same as what they were forty or fifty years prior. The gathering of Vatican II concentrated on issues on ritual, the Church, sacred text and celestial disclosure, and the job of the Bishops. The chamber delivered reports with respect to these themes, in addition to twelve additional points that they talked about in the gathering. As opposed to the past gatherings which were held fundamentally due to the ascent of bogus lessons, the Vatican II didn't concentrate on abusing apostate lessons. Along these lines, this gathering is most likely the first of its sort. Instructions to refer to What is the Vatican II?, Papers

Wednesday, August 12, 2020

Need more information COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Need more information COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog After a week on the road in California (as beautiful as the weather was out west), I am happy to be home in the city that never sleeps.   Were out for just a few more weeks on the road and then we settle in for the winter and fall application reading period.   But for now, were n the middle of reading spring applications and theres a good bunch here Exciting!   Hope this means fall will be even more exciting since there are more applications for the fall than the spring. So its now the end of October and you still havent made it to one of our campus information sessions or found us on the road Well, its not too late.   We still have a couple more campus sessions scheduled this year and you can actually join us tomorrow (Monday, October 28th) for an online information session at 10am EDT if you still have questions or just want to learn more about our MIA/MPA program.

Sunday, June 21, 2020

Precision agriculture - Free Essay Example

Precision agriculture Precision farming or precision agriculture is an agricultural concept relying on the existence of in-field variability. It requires the use of new technologies, such as global positioning (GPS), sensors, satellites or aerial images, and information management tools (GIS) to assess and understand variations. Collected information may be used to more precisely evaluate optimum sowing density, estimate fertilizers and other inputs needs, and to more accurately predict crop yields. It seeks to avoid applying inflexible practices to a crop, regardless of local soil/climate conditions, and may help to better assess local situations of disease or lodging. Satellites allow farmers to easily survey their land.[2] Global Positioning Systems (GPS) monitor can find the location of a field to within one meter. It can then present a series of GIS maps that demonstrate which fields are moist or dry, and where there is erosion of soil and other soil factors that stunt crop growth. The data can be used by the farmer to automatically regulate the machine application of fertilizer and pesticide[2]. In the American Midwest (US) it is associated not with sustainable agriculture but with mainstream farmers who are trying to maximize profits by spending money only in areas that need fertilizer. This practice allows the farmer to vary the rate of fertilizer across the field according to the need identified by GPS guided Grid Sampling. Fertilizer that would have been spread in areas that dont need it can be placed in areas that do, thereby optimizing its use. Precision farming may be used to improve a field or a farm management from several perspectives: * agronomical perspective: adjustment of cultural practices to take into account the real needs of the crop (e.g., better fertilization management) * technical perspective: better time management at the farm level (e.g. planning of agricultural activity) * environmental perspective: reduction of agricultural impacts (better estimation of crop nitrogen needs implying limitation of nitrogen run-off) * economical perspective: increase of the output and/or reduction of the input, increase of efficiency (e.g., lower cost of nitrogen fertilization practice) Other benefits for the farmer * geostatistics * integrated farming * Integrated Pest Management * nutrient budgeting * nutrient management * precision viticulture * Agriculture * Landsat program Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatiotemporal datasets. Developed originally to predict probable distributions for mining operations, it is currently applied in diverse disciplines including petroleum geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, geochemistry, geometallurgy, geography, forestry, environmental control, landscape ecology, soil science, and agriculture (esp. in precision farming). Geostatistics is applied in varied branches of geography, particularly those involving the spread of disease (epidemiology), the practice of commerce and military planning (logistics), and the development of efficient spatial networks. Geostatistics are incorporated in tools such as geographic information systems (GIS) and digital elevation models. History This section requires expansion with: details. Background When any phenomena is measured, the observation methodology will dictate the accuracy of subsequent analysis; in geography, this issue is complicated by unique variables and spatial patterns such as geospatial topology. An interesting feature in geostatistics is that every location displays some form of spatial pattern, whether in the form of the environment, climate, pollution, urbanization or human health. This is not to state that all variables are spatially dependent, simply that variables are incapable of measurement separate from their surroundings, such that there can be no perfect control population. Whether the study is concerned with the nature of traffic patterns in an urban core, or with the analysis of weather patterns over the Pacific, there are always variables which escape measurement; this is determined directly by the scale and distribution of the data collection, or survey, and its methodology. Limitations in data collection make it impossible to make a direct meas ure of continuous spatial data without inferring probabilities, some of these probability functions are applied to create an interpolation surface predicting unmeasured variables at innumerable locations. Geostatistical terms * Regionalized variable theory * Covariance function * Semi-variance * Variogram * Kriging * Range (geostatistics) * Sill (geostatistics) * Nugget effect Criticism A major contributor to this section (or its creator) appears to have a conflict of interest with its subject. It may require cleanup to comply with Wikipedias content policies, particularly neutral point of view. Please discuss further on the talk page. ({{{November 2009}}}) Jan W Merks, a mineral sampling expert consultant from Canada, has strongly criticized[1] geostatistics since 1992. Referring to it as voodoo science[2] and scientific fraud, he claims that geostatistics is an invalid branch of statistics. Merks submits[2] that geostatistics * ignores the variance of Agterbergs distance-weighted average point grade, * ignores the concept of degrees of freedom of a data set when testing for spatial dependence by applying Fishers F-test to the variance of a set and the first variance term of the ordered set, * abuses statistics by not using analysis of variance properly, * replaced genuine variances of single distance-weighted average point grades with pseudo-variances of sets of distance-weighted average point grades, violating the one-to-one correspondence between variances and functions such as Agterbergs distance-weighted average point grade. Furthermore, Merks claims geostatistics inflates mineral reserve and resources such as in the case of Bre-Xs fraud. Merkss expertise and credibility are supported by several company executives, who regularly hire his consulting services[3]. Philip and Watson have also criticized geostatistics in the past [4]. There is a consensus that inappropriate use of geostatistics makes the method susceptible to erroneous reading of results[3][5]. Related software * gslib is a set of fortran 77 routines (open source) implementing most of the classical geostatistics estimation and simulation algorithms * sgems is a cross-platform (windows, unix), open-source software that implements most of the classical geostatistics algorithms (kriging, Gaussian and indicator simulation, etc) as well as new developments (multiple-points geostatistics). It also provides an interactive 3D visualization and offers the scripting capabilities of python. * gstat is an open source computer code for multivariable geostatistical modelling, prediction and simulation. The gstat functionality is also available as an S extension, either as R package or S-Plus library. * besides gstat, R has at least six other packages dedicated to geostatistics and other areas in spatial statistics. Notes 1. ^ A website that criticizes Matheronian geostatistics ^ a b See (Merks 1992) 3. ^ a b Sandra Rubin, Whistleblower raises doubts over ore bodies, Financial Post, September 30, 2002. ^ See (Philip and Watson 1986). 5. ^ Statistics for Spatial Data, Revised Edition, Noel A. C. Cressie, ISBN 978-0-471-00255-0. References 1. Armstrong, M and Champigny, N, 1988, A Study on Kriging Small Blocks, CIM Bulletin, Vol 82, No 923 Armstrong, M, 1992, Freedom of Speech? De Geeostatisticis, July, No 14 3. Champigny, N, 1992, Geostatistics: A tool that works, The Northern Miner, May 18 4. Clark I, 1979, Practical Geostatistics, Applied Science Publishers, London 5. David, M, 1977, Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam 6. Hald, A, 1952, Statistical Theory with Engineering Applications, John Wiley Sons, New York 7. Chils, J.P., Delfiner, P. 1999. Geostatistics: modelling spatial uncertainty, Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics, 695 pp. 8. Deutsch, C.V., Journel, A.G, 1997. GSLIB: Geostatistical Software Library and Users Guide (Applied Geostatistics Series), Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 369 pp., 9. Deutsch, C.V., 2002. Geostatistical Reservoir Modeling, Oxford University Press, 384 pp., 10. Isaaks, E.H., Srivastava R.M.: Applied Geostatistics. 1989. 11. ISO/DIS 11648-1 Statistical aspects of sampling from bulk materials-Part1: General principles 12. Journel, A G and Huijbregts, 1978, Mining Geostatistics, Academic Press 13:.Kitanidis, P.K.: Introduction to Geostatistics: Applications in Hydrogeology, Cambridge University Press. 1997. 14. Lantujoul, C. 2002. Geostatistical simulation: models and algorithms. Springer, 256 pp. 15. Lipschutz, S, 1968, Theory and Problems of Probability, McCraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 16. Matheron, G. 1962. Trait de gostatistique applique. Tome 1, Editions Technip, Paris, 334 pp. 17. Matheron, G. 1989. Estimating and choosing, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 18. McGrew, J. Chapman, Monroe, Charles B., 2000. An introduction to statistical problem solving in geography, second edition, McGraw-Hill, New York. 19. Merks, J W, 1992, Geostatistics or voodoo science, The Northern Miner, May 18 20. Merks, J W, Abuse of statistics, CIM Bulletin, January 1993, Vol 86, No 966 21. Myers, Donald E.; What Is Geostatistics? 22. Philip, G M and Watson, D F, 1986, Matheronian Geostatistics; Quo Vadis?, Mathematical Geology, Vol 18, No 1 23. Sharov, A: Quantitative Population Ecology, 1996, 24. Shine, J.A., Wakefield, G.I.: A comparison of supervised imagery classification using analyst-chosen and geostatistically-chosen training sets, 1999, 25. Strahler, A. H., and Strahler A., 2006, Introducing Physical Geography, 4th Ed., Wiley. 26. Volk, W, 1980, Applied Statistics for Engineers, Krieger Publishing Company, Huntington, New York. 27. Wackernagel, H. 2003. Multivariate geostatistics, Third edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 387 pp. 28. Yang, X. S., 2009, Introductory Mathematics for Earth Scientists, Dunedin Academic Press, 240pp. 29. Youden, W J, 1951, Statistical Methods for Chemists: John Wiley Sons, New York. External links * Kriging link, contains explanations of variance in geostats * Arizona university geostats page * A resource on the internet about geostatistics and spatial statistics * On-Line Library that chronicles Matherons journey from classical statistics to the new science of geostatistics Retrieved from Categories: Geostatistics Hidden categories: Statistics articles needing expert attention | Articles needing expert attention from August 2009 | All articles needing expert attention | Articles lacking in-text citations from January 2009 | All articles lacking in-text citations | Articles to be expanded from January 2010 | All articles to be expanded | Wikipedia expand-section box with explanation text | Articles to be expanded from August 2008 | Wikipedia articles with sections containing possible conflicts of interest Integrated farming (or integrated agriculture) is a commonly and broadly used word to explain a more integrated approach to farming as compared to existing monoculture approaches. It refers to agricultural systems that integrate livestock and crop production and may sometimes be known as Integrated Biosystems. While not often considered as part of the permaculture movement Integrated Farming is a similar whole systems approach to agriculture[1]. There have been efforts to link the two together such as at the 2007 International Permaculture Conference in Brazil[2]. Agro-ecology (which was developed at University of California Santa Cruz) and Bio-dynamic farming also describe similar integrated approaches. Examples include: * pig tractor systems where the animals are confined in crop fields well prior to planting and plow the field by digging for roots * poultry used in orchards or vineyards after harvest to clear rotten fruit and weeds while fertilizing the soil * cattle or other livestock allowed to graze cover crops between crops on farms that contain both cropland and pasture (or where transhumance is employed) * Water based agricultural systems that provide way for effective and efficient recycling of farm nutrients producing fuel, fertilizer and a compost tea/mineralized irrigation water in the process. In 1993 FARRE (Forum de lAgriculture Raisonne Respecteuse lEnvironnement) developed agricultural techniques France as part of an attempt to reconcile agricultural methods with the principles of sustainable development. FARRE, promotes an integrated and/or multi-sector approach to food production that includes profitability, safety, animal welfare, social responsibility and environmental care. Zero Emissions Research and Initiatives (formed in 1994 by the eco-entrepreneur [1]) developed a similar approach to FARRE seeking to promote agricultural and industrial production models that sought to incorporate natures wisdom into the process. ZERI helped support an effort by an environmental engineer from Mauritius named George Chan. Chan working with a network of poly-culture farming pioneers began refining Integrated Farming practices that had already been developed in south-east Asia in the 60,70s and 80s, building on the ancient Night soil farming practice. In China, programs embracing this form of integrated farming have been successful in demonstrating how an intensive growing systems can use organic and sustainable farming practices, while providing a high agriculture yield. Taking what he learned from the Chinese during his time there, Chan worked at the UN University in the 1990s and forwarded an approach to Integrated Farming which was termed Integrated Biomass Systems working specifically under the UNU/ZERI ZERI Bag Program. Chan during his work with UNU sought to make the case that Integrated Biomass Systems were well suited to help small island nations and low lying tropical regions become more self-reliant and prosperous in the production of food[3]. Working with ZERI, he developed several prototypes for this approach around the world including sites in Namibia and Fiji. The scientifically verified results in a UNDP sponsored congress in 1997 resulted in the adoption of the IBS by the State Government of Paran, Brazil where dozens of piggeries have applied the system generating food, energy while improving health and environmental conditions. Montfort Boys Town in Fiji was one of the first Integrated Biomass Systems developed outside of Southeast Asia with the support of UNU, UNDP and other international agencies. The project which is still operational continues to be a model of how farm operations can provide multiple benefits to stakeholders both local and international. ZERI Bag had a significant African component that included assisting Father Godfrey Nzamujo in the development of the Songhai Farm Integrated Farming project in Benin[4] . Most recently The Heifer Foundation a major international NGO based in the USA has taken a lead role in deploying Integrated Farming so that it can be replicated globally as an effective approach to sustainable farming in non-affluent regions such as Vietnam[5]. References 1. ^ Steve Divers work linking Integrated Farming with Permaculture: 2. ^ Report includes reference to presentation on Integrated Farming by permaculture and ZERI practitioner Eric Fedus and Alexandre Takamatsu 3. ^ Small Islands and ZERI: A unique case for the Application of ZERI: A Paper presented by George Chan of the United Nations University at an International Symposium on Small Islands and Sustainable Development organized by the United Nations University and the National Land Agency of Japan: 4. ^ ZERI Bag was designed to focus on small scale deployment of appropriate technologies with a focus on the Integrated Biomass System approach developed by ZERI and George Chan 5. ^ External links * FARRE homepage * Integrated farming of fish, crop and livestock * Design an construction of an intergated fish farm * Integrated Farming System by George Chan * wiki on integrated farming * Songhai Centre in Benin IPM: In agriculture, integrated pest management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses a variety of complementary strategies including: mechanical devices, physical devices, genetic, biological, cultural management, and chemical management. These methods are done in three stages: prevention, observation, and intervention. It is an ecological approach with a main goal of significantly reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides while at the same time managing pest populations at an acceptable level.[1] For their leadership in developing and spreading IPM worldwide, Dr. Perry Adkisson and Dr. Ray F. Smith received the 1997 World Food Prize. History of IPM Shortly after World War II, when synthetic insecticides became widely available, entomologists in California developed the concept of supervised insect control. Around the same time, entomologists in cotton-belt states such as Arkansas were advocating a similar approach. Under this scheme, insect control was supervised by qualified entomologists, and insecticide applications were based on conclusions reached from periodic monitoring of pest and natural-enemy populations. This was viewed as an alternative to calendar-based insecticide programs. Supervised control was based on a sound knowledge of the ecology and analysis of projected trends in pest and natural-enemy populations. Supervised control formed much of the conceptual basis for the integrated control that University of California entomologists articulated in the 1950s. Integrated control sought to identify the best mix of chemical and biological controls for a given insect pest. Chemical insecticides were to be used in manner least disruptive to biological control. The term integrated was thus synonymous with compatible. Chemical controls were to be applied only after regular monitoring indicated that a pest population had reached a level (the economic threshold) that required treatment to prevent the population from reaching a level (the economic injury level) at which economic losses would exceed the cost of the artificial control measures. IPM extended the concept of integrated control to all classes of pests and was expanded to include tactics other than just chemical and biological controls. Artificial controls such as pesticides were to be applied as in integrated control, but these now had to be compatible with control tactics for all classes of pests. Other tactics, such as host-plant resistance and cultural manipulations, became part of the IPM arsenal. IPM added the multidisciplinary element, involving entomologists, plant pathologists, nematologists, and weed scientists. In the United States, IPM was formulated into national policy in February 1972 when President Nixon directed federal agencies to take steps to advance the concept and application of IPM in all relevant sectors. In 1979, President Carter established an interagency IPM Coordinating Committee to ensure development and implementation of IPM practices. (references: The History of IPM, BioControl Reference Center. [1] How IPM works An IPM regime can be quite simple or sophisticated. Historically, the main focus of IPM programs was on agricultural insect pests.[2] Although originally developed for agricultural pest management, IPM programs are now developed to encompass diseases, weeds, and other pests that interfere with the management objectives of sites such as residential and commercial structures, lawn and turf areas, and home and community gardens. An IPM system is designed around six basic components: The US Environmental Protection Agency has a useful set of IPM principles. [2] 1. Acceptable pest levels: The emphasis is on control, not eradication. IPM holds that wiping out an entire pest population is often impossible, and the attempt can be more costly, environmentally unsafe, and frequently unachievable. IPM programs first work to establish acceptable pest levels, called action thresholds, and apply controls if those thresholds are crossed. These thresholds are pest and site specific, meaning that it may be acceptable at one site to have a weed such as white clover, but at another site it may not be acceptable. This stops the pest gaining resistance to chemicals produced by the plant or applied to the crops. If many of the pests are killed then any that have resistance to the chemical will rapidly reproduce forming a resistant population. By not killing all the pests there are some un-resistant pests left that will dilute any resistant genes that appear. 2. Preventive cultural practices: Selecting varieties best for local growing conditions, and maintaining healthy crops, is the first line of defense, together with plant quarantine and cultural techniques such as crop sanitation (e.g. removal of diseased plants to prevent spread of infection). 3. Monitoring: Regular observation is the cornerstone of IPM. Observation is broken into two steps, first; inspection and second; identification.[3] Visual inspection, insect and spore traps, and other measurement methods and monitoring tools are used to monitor pest levels. Accurate pest identification is critical to a successful IPM program. Record-keeping is essential, as is a thorough knowledge of the behavior and reproductive cycles of target pests. Since insects are cold-blooded, their physical development is dependent on the temperature of their environment. Many insects have had their development cycles modeled in terms of degree days. Monitor the degree days of an environment to determine when is the optimal time for a specific insects outbreak. 4. Mechanical controls: Should a pest reach an unacceptable level, mechanical methods are the first options to consider. They include simple hand-picking, erecting insect barriers, using traps, vacuuming, and tillage to disrupt breeding. 5. Biological controls: Natural biological processes and materials can provide control, with minimal environmental impact, and often at low cost. The main focus here is on promoting beneficial insects that eat target pests. Biological insecticides, derived from naturally occurring microorganisms (e.g.: Bt, entomopathogenic fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes), also fit in this category. 6. Chemical controls: Synthetic pesticides are generally only used as required and often only at specific times in a pests life cycle. Many of the newer pesticide groups are derived from plants or naturally occurring substances (e.g.: nicotine, pyrethrum and insect juvenile hormone analogues), and further biology-based or ecological techniques are under evaluation. IPM is applicable to all types of agriculture and sites such as residential and commercial structures, lawn and turf areas, and home and community gardens. Reliance on knowledge, experience, observation, and integration of multiple techniques makes IPM a perfect fit for organic farming (the synthetic chemical option is simply not considered). For large-scale, chemical-based farms, IPM can reduce human and environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals, and potentially lower overall costs of pesticide application material and labor. 1. Proper identification of pest What is it? Cases of mistaken identity may result in ineffective actions. If plant damage due to over-watering are mistaken for a fungal infection, a spray may be used needlessly and the plant still dies. 2. Learn pest and host life cycle and biology. At the time you see a pest, it may be too late to do much about it except maybe spray with a pesticide. Often, there is another stage of the life cycle that is susceptible to preventative actions. For example, weeds reproducing from last years seed can be prevented with mulches. Also, learning what a pest needs to survive allows you to remove these. 3. Monitor or sample environment for pest population How many are here? Preventative actions must be taken at the correct time if they are to be effective. For this reason, once you have correctly identified the pest, you begin monitoring BEFORE it becomes a problem. For example, in school cafeterias where roaches may be expected to appear, sticky traps are set out before school starts. Traps are checked at regular intervals so you can see them right away and do something before they get out of hand. Some of the things you might want to monitor about pest populations include: Is the pest present/absent? What is the distribution all over or only in certain spots? Is the pest population increasing or decreasing? 4. Establish action threshold (economic, health or aesthetic) How many are too many? In some cases, a certain number of pests can be tolerated. Soybeans are quite tolerant of defoliation, so if you have only a few caterpillars in the field and their population is not increasing dramatically, there is no need to do anything. Conversely, there is a point at which you MUST do something. For the farmer, that point is the one at which the cost of damage by the pest is MORE than the cost of control. This is an economic threshold. Tolerance of pests varies also by whether or not they are a health hazard (low tolerance) or merely a cosmetic damage (high tolerance in a non-commercial situation). Personal tolerances also vary many people dislike any insect; some people cannot tolerate dandelions in their yards. Different sites may also have varying requirements based on specific areas. White clover may be perfectly acceptable on the sides of a tee box on a golf course, but unacceptable in th e fairway where it could cause confusion in the field of play.[4] 5. Choose an appropriate combination of management tactics For any pest situation, there will be several options to consider. Options include, mechanical or physical control, cultural controls, biological controls and chemical controls. Mechanical or physical controls include picking pests off plants, or using netting or other material to exclude pests such as birds from grapes or rodents from structures. Cultural controls include keeping an area free of conducive conditions by removing or storing waste properly, removing diseased areas of plants properly. Biological controls can be support either through conservation of natural predators or augmentation of natural predators[5]. Augmentative control includes the introduction of naturally occurring predators at either an inundative or inoculative level[6]. An inundative release would be one that seeks to inundate a site with a pests predator to impact the pest population[7][8]. An inoculative release would be a smaller number of pest predators to supplement the natural population and provide ongoing control.[9] Chemical controls would include horticultural oils or the application of pesticides such as insecticides and herbicides. A Green Pest Management IPM program would use pesticides derived from plants, such as botanicals, or other naturally occurring materials. 6. Evaluate results How did it work? Evaluation is often one of the most important steps.[10] This is the process to review an IPM program and the results it generated. Asking the following questions is useful: Did your actions have the desired effect? Was the pest prevented or managed to your satisfaction? Was the method itself satisfactory? Were there any unintended side effects? What will you do in the future for this pest situation? Understanding the effectiveness of the IPM program allows the site manager to make modifications to the IPM plan prior to pests reaching the action threshold and requiring action again. Notes 1. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticides and Food: What Integrated Pest Management Means. 2. ^ 3. ^ Bennett, Et Al., Trumans Scientific Guide to Pest Management Operations, 6th edition, page 10, Purdue University/Questex Press, 2005. 4. ^ Purdue University Turf Pest Management Correspondence Course, Introduction, 2006 5. ^ 6. ^ 7. ^ 8. ^ 9. ^ 10. ^ Bennett, Et Al., Trumans Scientific Guide to Pest Management Operations, 6th edition, page 12, Purdue University/Questex Press, 2005. References * Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs: An Integrated Pest Management Guide. Steve H. Dreistadt, Mary Louise Flint, et al., ANR Publications, University of California, Oakland, California, 1994. 328pp, paper, photos, reference tables, diagrams. * Bennett, Gary W., Ph.d., Owens, John M., Ph.d., Corrigan, Robert M, Ph.d. Trumans Scientific Guide to Pest Management Operations, 6th Edition, pages 10, 11, 12, Purdue University, Questex, 2005. * Jahn, GC, PG Cox., E Rubia-Sanchez, and M Cohen 2001. The quest for connections: developing a research agenda for integrated pest and nutrient management. pp. 413-430, In S. Peng and B. Hardy [eds.] Rice Research for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation. Proceeding the International Rice Research Conference, 31 March 3 April 2000, Los Baos, Philippines. Los Baos (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 692 p. * Jahn, GC, B. Khiev, C Pol, N. Chhorn and V Preap 2001. Sustainable pest management for rice in Cambodia. In P. Cox and R Chhay [eds.] The Impact of Agricultural Research for Development in Southeast Asia Proceedings of an International Conference held at the Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 24-26 Oct. 2000, Phnom Penh (Cambodia): CARDI. * Jahn, GC, JA Litsinger, Y Chen and A Barrion. 2007. Integrated Pest Management of Rice: Ecological Concepts. In Ecologically Based Integrated Pest Management (eds. O. Koul and G.W. Cuperus). CAB International Pp. 315-366. * Kogan, M 1998. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT:Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Developments, Annual Review of Entomology Vol. 43: 243-270 (Volume publication date January 1998) (doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.243) * Nonveiller, Guido 1984. Catalogue comment et illustr des insectes du Cameroun dintrt agricole: (apparitions, rpartition, importance) / University of Belgrade/Institut pour la protection des plantes * US Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticides and Food: What Does Integrated Pest Management Mean? Books On building organic pest-free gardens * The Time Saving Garden by David and Charles PLC/Readers Digest, ISBN 13: 9780276442452 External links * Integrated Pest Management: Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP) * Pest control trade-association web site on IPM. * [3] Rationalising pesticide use through improved application methods * IPM for Lawn care * UC IPM University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program This site received a 4-star excellent rating in a recent magazine column dedicated to science-related web sites. (Kevin Ahern, Ph.D. (2009), GEN Best of the Web, Genetic Engineering Biotechnology News 29 (8): 66) * Harvard University IPM Harvard University IPM Program * IFAS IPM University of Floridas Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences IPM Program * New York State IPM Program New York State (Cornell University) IPM Program * OSU IPM Program Ohio State University IPM Program * IPM Images Thousands of Images related to IPM and Agriculture * UGA IPM Program University of Georgia IPM Program * MSU IPM resources IPM Resources at Michigan State University * IPM Institute of North America Non-profit organization promoting IPM practices * Green Shield Certified: Effective pest control. Peace of mind. A third-party certification for effective pest control without unnecessary pesticides * Top Ten Reasons Why IPM Doesnt Work * SAFECROP Centre for research and development of crop protection with low environment and consumer health impact * University of Nebraska IPM write up example Retrieved from Nutrient budgeting is used in agriculture. The process involves balancing nutrients coming into the farming system with those leaving. The aim is to prevent pollution events and save costs by precisely matching the nutrient requirements of the crop with application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Nutrients entering the farming system from: * Residual nutrients in the soil and organic matter remaining in the soil from previous crops * Green manure * Animal manures and slurries * Inorganic fertilizer application Nutrient management Nutrient management is a process used by farmers to manage the amount, form, placement, and timing of the application of nutrients (whether as manure, commercial fertilizer, or other form of nutrients) to plants. The purpose is to supply plant nutrients for optimum forage and crop yields, to minimize nonpoint source pollution (runoff of pollutants to surface water) and contamination of groundwater, and to maintain and/or improve the condition of soil.[1] [2] Manure spreader A nutrient management plan is a set of conservation practices designed to use fertilizer and/or manure effectively while protecting against the potential adverse impacts of manure, erosion and organic byproducts on water quality. When such a plan is designed for animal feeding operations (AFO) it may be termed a manure management plan. The plans typically address: * soil testing * manure testing * erosion control practices * According to the soil pH the recommend dose may be varying. * timing of fertilizer/manure application.[2] In the United States some regulatory agencies recommend or require that farms implement these plans, in order to prevent water pollution. The U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has published guidance documents on preparing a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) for AFOs.[3] [4] References ^ U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Fort Worth, TX. National Conservation Practice Standard: Nutrient Management. Code 590. August 2006. ^ a b U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC. Nutrient Management. September 11, 2007. ^ NRCS. Beltsville, MD. Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans. Fact Sheet. 2003. ^ NRCS. National Planning Procedures Handbook: Draft Comprehensive Nutrient Management Planning Technical Guidance. Subpart E, Parts 600.50-600.54 and Subpart F, Part 600.75. December 2000. This agriculture article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. Precision viticulture Precision viticulture is precision farming applied to optimize vineyard performance, in particular maximizing grape yield and quality while minimizing environmental impacts and risk [1]. This is accomplished by measuring local variation in factors that influence grape yield and quality (soil, topography, microclimate, vine health, etc.) and applying appropriate viticulture management practices (trellis design, pruning, fertilizer application, irrigation, timing of harvest, etc.)[2][3]. Precision viticulture is based on the premise that high in-field variability for factors that affect vine growth and grape ripening warrants intensive management customized according to local conditions. Precision viticulture depends on new and emerging technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS), meteorologic and other environmental sensors, satellite and airborne remote sensing, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess and respond to variability. Background Precision viticulture is unique in its emphasis on vineyard management according to local variation, and in its use of science and technology to accomplish this. While Australian viticulturalists are generally recognized as leaders in precision viticulture, and while viticulturalists worldwide have embraced the approach, the fundamental concepts have deep roots in the traditions of Old World winemaking regions. Terroir, a related French concept, refers to the special geographic qualities or sense of place embodied in the wine produced in a particular region [4]. Precision agriculture emphasizes doing the right thing, in the right place, at the right time, and is practical for viticulture because of high local variability of conditions within vineyards, and because of responsiveness to intensive management in terms of increased grape yield and quality. According to CSIRO, Australia [5] Typically grape yield varies eight to ten-fold under uniform management; patterns of yield variation are stable in time and driven by soil and topographic variation; and patterns of variation in fruit quality tend to be similar to those for yield, suggesting opportunities for zonal management and selective harvest. Australian precision viticulture has focused on yield monitoring, whereas California precision viticulture has focused on remote sensing [6]. Technology for Characterizing Vineyard Variation Precision viticulture uses a broad set of enabling technologies to observe and respond to vineyard variability: * Global Positioning Systems (GPS) provide satellite-based georeferencing for mapping vineyard environmental variability. * Meteorologic Stations monitor climatic factors important for vine growth and grape ripening, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind. * Remote Sensing from satellite and airborne platforms provides images depicting vineyard conditions, for example vine productivity from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). * Digital Elevation Models (DEM) provide detailed topographic information. * High Resolution Soil Surveys provide detailed information about soil fertility and hydrologic characteristics. * Relational Databases organize environmental and economic information. * Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide digital tools for map-based analysis. * Other Environmental Sensors monitor important biophysical factors such as solar radiation, soil moisture, and temperature regimes. Precision Viticulture Management Practices Precision viticulture draws upon a variety of management approaches, including zonal management, in which different areas of the vineyard are managed according to their unique conditions, and adaptive management, in which different management practices are applied according to observed needs and improved knowledge. Trellis design, in terms of row orientation and geometry of vine support, and pruning practices can be tailored to optimize vine health, to protect grapes from frost, sunburn, and mildew damage, and to ensure even grape ripening[7]. Irrigation and fertilizer application schedules, pest management, and selective harvest based on timing of ripening can all be managed to minimize costs and maximize vineyard performance based on observed needs. Increasingly, precision viticulture, with its focus on management according to local variability, is coupled with organic farming, with its focus on environmentally friendly practices without the use of chemical pesticides and fertilize rs, and with sustainable agriculture, with emphasis on long-term environmental stewardship and economic viability. Future Various integrative technological approaches are gaining increasing attention for application in precision viticulture: * Distributed Sensor Networks use strategic deployment of sensors throughout a vineyard to monitor key factors such as water stress and temperature. * Vineyard Models simulate microclimate, vine growth, grape ripening, and economic return on investment to evaluate management options. * Decision Support Systems (DSS) bring together vineyard environmental and economic databases, vineyard models, and GIS in an interactive software-based system to solve management problems and better make decisions. References ^ Proffitt, T., R. Bramley, D. Lamb, and E. Winter. 2006. Precision Viticulture: A New Era in Vineyard Management and Wine Production. WineTitles, Adelaide. ISBN 9780975685044 ^ Bramley R.G.V., Hamilton R.P. 2004. Understanding variability in winegrape production systems. 1. Within vineyard variation in yield over several vintages. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 10: 32-45. 3. ^ Bramley R.G.V. 2005. Understanding variability in winegrape production systems. 2. Within vineyard variation in quality over several vintages. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 11: 33-42. ^ Robinson, J. (ed). 2006. The Oxford Companion to Wine, Third Edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198609906 5. ^ CSIRO, 2008. Australia Precision Viticulture Overview,, accessed December 15, 2008 ^ Goode, J. 2005. The Science of Wine: from Vine to Glass. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0520248007, ISBN 9780520248007 ^ Weiss, S.B., D.C. Luth, and B. Guerra. 2003. Potential solar radiation in a VSP trellis at 38N latitude. Practical Winery and Vineyard 25:16-27. The Science of Wine: from Vine to Glass. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0520248007, ISBN 9780520248007 Proffitt, T., R. Bramley, D. Lamb, and E. Winter. 2006. Precision Viticulture: A New Era in Vineyard Management and Wine Production. WineTitles, Adelaide. ISBN 9780975685044 Sommers, B.J. 2008. The Geography of Wine: How Landscapes, Cultures, Terroir, and the Weather Make a Good Drop. Plume Press/Penguin Prentice-Hall Press. ISBN 0452288908 Swinchatt, J., and D.G. Howell. 2004. The Winemakers Dance: Exploring Terroir in the Napa Valley. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0520235134 The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acquisition of imagery of Earth from space. The first Landsat satellite was launched in 1972; the most recent, Landsat 7, was launched on April 15, 1999. The instruments on the Landsat satellites have acquired millions of images. The images, archived in the United States and at Landsat receiving stations around the world, are a unique resource for global change research and applications in agriculture, cartography, geology, forestry, regional planning, surveillance, education and national security. Landsat 7 data has eight spectral bands with spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 60 meters. History Hughes Santa Barbara Research Center initiated design and fabrication of the first three MSS Multi-Spectral-Scanners in the same year man landed on the moon, 1969. The first prototype MSS was completed within nine months by fall of 1970 when it was tested by scanning Half Dome at Yosemite National Park. The initial centerline for the primary layout of the MSS was drawn by Jim Kodak, the opto-mechanical design engineer who designed the Pioneer spacecraft optical camera, the first instrument to leave the solar system. The program was called the Earth Resources Observation Satellites Program when it was initiated in 1966, but the name was changed to Landsat in 1975. In 1979, Presidential Directive 54 under President of the United States Jimmy Carter transferred Landsat operations from NASA to NOAA, recommended development of long term operational system with four additional satellites beyond Landsat 3, and recommended transition to private sector operation of Landsat. This occurred in 1985 when the Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT), a partnership of Hughes Aircraft and RCA, was selected by NOAA to operate the Landsat system under a ten year contract. EOSAT operated Landsats 4 and 5, had exclusive rights to market Landsat data, and was to build Landsats 6 and 7. In 1989, this transition had not been fully completed when NOAAs funding for the Landsat program ran out and NOAA directed that Landsats 4 and 5 be shut down, but an act of the United States Congress provided emergency funding for the rest of the year. Funding ran out again in 1990 and once again Congress provided emergency funding to NOAA for six more months of operations, requesting that agencies that used Landsat data provide the funding for the other six months of the upcoming year. The same funding problem and solution was repeated in 1991. In 1992, various efforts were made to finally procure funding for follow on Landsats and continued operations, but by the end of the year EOSAT ceased processing Landsat data. Landsat 6 was finally launched on October 5, 1993, but was lost in a launch failure. Processing of Landsat 4 and 5 data was resumed by EOSAT in 1994. NASA finally launched Landsat 7 on April 15, 1999. The value of the Landsat program was recognized by Congress in October 1992 when it passed the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act (Public Law 102-555) authorizing the procurement of Landsat 7 and assuring the continued availability of Landsat digital data and images, at the lowest possible cost, to traditional and new users of the data. Satellite chronology * Landsat 1 (originally named Earth Resources Technology Satellite 1) launched July 23, 1972, terminated operations January 6, 1978 * Landsat 2 launched January 22, 1975, terminated January 22, 1981 * Landsat 3 launched March 5, 1978, terminated March 31, 1983 * Landsat 4 launched July 16, 1982, terminated 1993 * Landsat 5 launched March 1, 1984, still functioning. [1] [2] * Landsat 6 launched October 5, 1993, failed to reach orbit * Landsat 7 launched April 15, 1999, still functioning, but with faulty scan line corrector (May 2003) [3] Technical details This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of the island of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasnt erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the islands southeastern shore, rising from Kilaueathe most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaiis lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plant ations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. The Multi-Spectral-Scanner had a 9 fused silica dinner-plate mirror epoxy bonded to three invar tangent bars mounted to base of a Ni/ Au brazed Invar frame in a serreuire truss that was arranged with four Hobbs-Links (conceived by Dr. Gregg Hobbs) crossing at mid truss. This construct ensured the secondary mirror would simply oscillate about the primary optic axis to maintain focus despite vibration inherent from the 14-inch (360mm) Be scan mirror. This engineering solution allowed the US to develop LANDSAT at least five years ahead of French SPOT which first used CCD arrays to stare without need for a scanner. The MSS FPA, or Focal Plane Array consisted of 24 square optical fibers extruded down to .0002square fiber tips in a 46 array to be scanned across the Nimbus spacecraft path in a +/-6 degree scan as the satellite was in a 10:30 polar orbit, hence it had to be launched from Vandenburg AFB. The fiber optic bundle was embedded in a fiber optic plate to be terminated at a relay optic device that transmitted fiber end signal on into six photodiodes and 18 photomultiplier tubes that were arrayed across a 0.30-inch (7.6mm) thick aluminum tool plate, with sensor weight balanced vs the 9-inch (230mm) telescope on opposite side. This main plate was assembled on a frame, then attached to the silver-loaded magnesium housing with helicoil fasteners. Key to MSS success was the scan monitor mounted on the underbelly of the Mg housing. It consisted of a diode source sensor mounted at ends of four flat mirrors that were tilted so that it took 14 bounces for a beam to reflect length of the three mirrors from source to sender striking Be scan mirror seven times as it reflected seven times off the flat mirrors. It only sensed three positions, both ends of scan the mid scan, but that was all that was required to determine where MSS was pointed and electronics scanning could be calibrated to display a map. Future The Landsat Data Continuity Mission, scheduled to be launched in 2012, will be the next satellite in the Landsat series. The new satellite is being built in Arizona by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems. [4] References 1. ^ Universe Today Landsat 5 Reaches 20 Years in Space 2. ^ 20 Years of Landsat 5 3. ^ The Landsat Program 4. ^ Landsat Data Continuity Mission. NASA.